Competing Nationalisms @ AFCON 2013: the Two Imperial Nationalisms of Ethiopia and the Liberation Nationalism of Oromiyaa

oromiaethio

CompetingNationalismsLiberationImperial2013

Competing Nationalisms at the 2013 AFCON … the Liberation Nationalism of Oromiyaa (Left Picture), and the Imperial Nationalisms of Ethiopia (Center and Right Pictures)

January 31, 2013 (Gadaa.com) — The last time the Ethiopian empire participated at the African Cup of Nations (AFCON) was back in 1982, some eight years after the 1974 Revolution, which had promised the South’s emancipation from national oppression – the South is the region in the Ethiopian empire, it was conquered and colonized by Atse Menelik in the late 19th century. After the 1974 Revolution, instead of addressing the national question, the Derg military junta pushed an ultra Ethiopian imperial nationalist rhetoric to combat popular national liberation movements in all corners of the Empire: Eritrean and Tigrean in the north, Oromiyaan in the east and west, and Ogaden in the east. There were also other similar movements, such as the Afar and Gambella peoples’ movements in the northeast and southwest, respectively. In 1982, when it participated at that year’s AFCON, Ethiopia was nothing but an empire on the verge of collapse. What’s more, if there had been no display of competing nationalisms at the 1982 AFCON in Libya (as portrayed in the above pictures at AFCON 2013), it must have been due to the absence of Oromo and other immigrants in Tripoli and Benghazi, the two venues for AFCON games of that year, not due to the absence of competing nationalisms in the Ethiopian empire.

The Two Competing Ethiopian Imperial Nationalisms
Then came 1991. The Transitional Government (TGE), dominated by TPLF, drew up the Charter, a document that was ratified by nationalist groups, including the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF), and that promised to uproot the national oppression from the Empire, and implement, not only the self-governance of the nations, nationalities and peoples in their respective regions, but also fair representation of the regions in the central government. It took only one year for TPLF to violently tramp upon these aspects of the Charter, i.e. self-governance at the regional level, and fair representation in the central government. Over the next two decades, TPLF would use its regional proxies to institute a fake federal system, which continues to make a mockery of both self-governance at the regional level and fair representation in the central government. This episode has once again reminded the South’s conquered nations and nationalities that the Empire is incapable of making a “peaceful” and “democratic” transition to decolonization as it was stipulated in 1991.

Following the footsteps of the Derg, TPLF spent the last two decades hatching its own version of Ethiopianism, which has again alienated the Empire’s nations and nationalities, such as the Oromo, Sidama and Ogaden. Even the Amhara elites, the other Abyssinian force, who self-assuredly believe the Ethiopian Empire-State had been created by their forefathers for their pleasure, do not adhere to the TPLF-version of Ethiopian imperial nationalism – they actually have their own version of “exiled” Ethiopian imperial nationalism, which is professed to be the “purest” version; the Amhara elites accuse TPLF of corrupting the “real” Ethiopian imperial nationalism with “nationalisms” of the South.

The Oromo Liberation Nationalism – Oromummaa
Conquered and colonized in the late 19th century by Abyssinian warlords, the Oromo nation constitutes the largest ethnic group in the Horn of Africa as well as the Ethiopian empire. After several decades of isolated resistance against the invading Abyssinian warlords, the emerging Oromo liberation nationalism (Oromummaa) started to unify the Oromo struggle against the national subjugation in the 1960′s. The call for a united and coordinated struggle culminated in the birth of the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) in the 1970′s. The OLF struggles for the national self-determination of the Oromo nation from the century-old Abyssinian colonization and for the independence of Oromiyaa, the country of the Oromo people.

After almost two decades of struggle, the OLF participated in the aforementioned Transitional Government (TGE) in 1991 – partly due to pressure from its then allies to seek a “peaceful” and “democratic” solution within the Ethiopian framework. However, the OLF was driven out of the TGE within a year by TPLF forces, which had decided to hold onto the imperial structure of the Ethiopian state through brute force. In the 1990′s, in spite of TPLF’s military might, the Oromo people defended themselves from complete subjugation using the Oromo liberation nationalism(Oromummaa); today, they have secured a region in the Horn of Africa called Oromiyaa, and they are also exercising their right to language and culture (making Afan Oromo the working and teaching language of Oromiyaa). On top of these gains, the Oromo people have continued to wage the national resistance struggle against the occupying TPLF army for the total political and economic emancipation of Oromiyaa.

–For Detail Click Gadaa.com

Akkam Nagumaa?

Kan Barreesse : Tasfaayee Birhaanu Birmajii |  Amajjii, 2013

Tilahun_GessesseWeellisaa hangaftichi maqaa kolonii Xilaahuun Gassassa ykn  maqaa dhaloota Daandanaa Ayyaanoo Guddata tiin beekamu danddeetti wallisuma isaatiin sadarkaa toophiyaatti dorgomaa kan hin qabne akka ture eenyuu raga baha. Sirboota Afaan Amaara sirbuun caalatti beekamus darbee darbee sirboonni Afaan saba isaa kan Oromoo maxxansa isaa keessaa dhabamanii hin beekan. Barruu tokko irraa dhiyeenya akkan dubbisetti, Xilaahuun maaliif Afaan saba keeti Afaan oromoo caala maalif sirboota afaan Amaara sirbuu filattee jedhamee yeroo gafatametti kan inni deebise haala qabatamaa yeroo sanaa yoo ilaalle waanuma dhugaati ” Dhuguma dubachuuf walaloo afaan oromoon hin dhabne, oromoota biraa walaloo Afaan Oromoo hedduutu naaf kennama yeroo yerootti. Isaan keessaa tokkollee sirboota afaan amaara keessa buusee sirbuuf gidiraa meeqatu narra gahaa” jedhe.

Gaaffii kana kan gaafatame baruma sana malee erga barri darbee miti hubadhaa. Yeroo sirna nafxanyaa sana waltajjii adda addaa irratti weellistu Buzuneesh Baqqala waliin Afaan Oromootin sirbee wayita bahu maalif  sirbite jedhani dhaagaadhan karaa irratti eegani reeba (dhaana) akka turanillee namoonni yeroo sana turan ragaa bahu. Dhaaname jedhee jiilee Afaan orommotin sirbuu lagatee hin beeku.  Waan hin taane hin qabnuum dhiiro! Yoo weellistonni Oromoo lakkii afaan keenyaan malee afaan hin beeknen hin sirbinu jedhanii rincicanii didan, kaasseta isaani irraa bilisaan irraa fudhatanii ofii Miliyoonatti gurgurataa turan habashoonni. “Koloniin qabeenya keenya kan kalaqaan argannellee nu saama turte” kan weellisan Kadiir Sa’id jedhee waanuma dhugaati.

 

Waan hundaafu, kan kana hunda na haasofsiise sirba weellisa kabajaama kanaa kan  dhuma 60nii keessaa weellifame tokko. Bilchinni walaloo isaa raajiidhuma. Sagalee isaa kiilolee sanaan yeroo suuta halalaasu dhageefatamee hin quufamu. Akkam Nagumaa Fayyumaa! walaloo sirba kaana kan barreessee Daandanaaf kennee Shawaalul Mangistuu nama jedhamtuu dha. Shawaalul yeroo sirna Nafxanyaa sana Raadiyoo Toophiyaa kan Harargeedha tamsa’u kutaa Afaan Oromoo keessa hojjataa akka turtee fi kennaa addaa walaloo barreesu akka qabdu dhagaheera. Qabiyyeen fi bilchinni sirba kanaa waan baayee na ajaa’ibsiisef akka armaan gaditti walaloo isaa kaa’eera. Yoon tarii irraa goree fi akka sirbicha keessa jiruutti hin kataabin hafee balleessaa kooti na oofkalchaa!

 

Akkam nagumaa fayyumaa

Hiriyaa hin qabuu kophumaa

Dhuftee na ilaaltus gaarumaa

Akkam nagumaa fayyumaa

……………………………………

Eessattiin si argaa

Garamii karrisaa

Mee nama naa dhaami

Bakkeen jirtu Eessaa

Yaa damme Yaa dammee

Yaa damma bulbulaa

Ani hirriiba dhabee

Suman yaada bulaa

Akkam nagumaa fayyumaa

Hiriyaa hin qabuu kophumaa

Dhuftee na ilaaltus gaaruma

Akkam nagumaa fayyumaa

———————————-

namni na ilaalee karaa na ceesisa

Gidiraan jaalala sihi na feesisa

Garaallee rakkinaan

sabbatan hidhannee

Ijaa ammoo akkam goona

kan ilaaltee hin obsinee

Akkam nagumaa fayyumaa

Hiriyaa hin qabuu kophumaa

Dhuftee na ilaaltus gaarumaa

Akkam nagumaa fayyumaa

———————————–

Bakee ati jirtu qalbiin koo na yaadde

Numaan ciisa malee hirribnis na didee

Nagaayatti nagayatti nagaayan jiraadhu

Guyyaa tokko dhufee hangaan si dhungadhuu

Akkam nagumaa fayyumaa

Hiriyaa hin qabuu kophumaa

Dhuftee na ilaaltuus gaaruma

Akkam nagumaa fayyuma

hoo…hooo..hooooy…….

hoo..hooo….hoooy……..

 

Guutuu sirba kanaa armaan gadditti caqasuu dandeessan

 

 

 

 

The Oromo of Harerghe: On their Settlement Pattern and their Dialect

By Afendi Muteki

TOromo of Hargdhehe Oromo of Harerghe belong to the Barentuma/Barento confederation, one of the two main branchs of the Oromo people. They are bounded by the Arsi Oromo in the west and south, the Karayyu and Jille Oromo in the north west, the Afar people in the north and the Somali people in the east and south east. They call their natural homeland “Fugug”. They are basically regrouped to three major tribes; the Ittu, Afran Qallo and Anniya.

The Ittu Oromo ocuppy the western part of Harerghe highlands. Their home area is called “Carcar” or “Ona Ituu”. They are the people who are very close to the assembly of “Caffee Odaa Bultum” under which the tradition of the Barentuma Oromo adminstration system is kept. The natural boundary between Ittu and Afran Qallo is Burqa river which is found near Baroodaa town. The boundary between Ittu and Anniya is the Ramis river.

The Afran Qalloo Oromo lay to the east of Ittu and North of Aniyyaa. They are largest of the three groups both in thier population and the area they occupy. They have four main divisions called Oborraa, Babile, Daga (which is subdivided to Nole, Jarso and Hume) and Ala. It is not clear whether the land of Afran Qalloo has a unique name although some people call it “Goro Fugug”. Afran Qallo had a long tradition of “Raabaa Doorii” assembly which was held at a place called “Bululoo” near the town of Watar.

The Aniya Oromo occoupy the lowlands of the former Gara Mulata province. Their home area is called “Diida Aanniyyaa” or ”Burqaa Tirtiraa”. With only few exceptions, they are pastoralists. The boundary between Afran Qallo and Aniyya is the Mojoo river. The Anniya Oromo used to held their “Caffee Gadaa” assembly at “Burqaa Tirtiraa”.

***********************************

The Oromo of Harerghe speak the Oromo language called Afaan Oromo. However, they retained unique dialect which has certain important features. First, their dialect is marked by a guttural sound “kh”. Some linguists say that the Harar Oromos borrowed this sound from other languages (like Somali, Harari and Arabic). But this assumption has no base because the “kh” sound exists in other Oromo dialects as well; it exists even in “Borana” and “Guji” dialects which are thought to have low contact with other languages. On the other hand, in the Harar Oromo dialect it is not only the loan words that have the “kh” sound but also many words of Oromo roots are marked so. For example “khaleessa” (yesterday), “khannuu” (to give), “khaayuu” (to put down), “khiyya” (mine), “khoottu” (come) etc… have all “kh” sounds and these words were not borrowed from any other language. So the notion that asserts “kh” is a loan sound is unreliable.

The second feature of the Harar Oromo dialect is its possesion of many loan words which are used only in Harerghe. This has no mystery because the Oromo of Harerghe live in the land criss-crossed by trade routes and military expeditions, and they share boundary with different nations such as Somali, Afar, Harari etc; so it is evident that they borrowed many words from other languages. For example, we can see the Oromos of Harerghe saying “zigaal”, “zanyaa”, “zuuguu”, “azeeba”, “azala” etc… These words were borrowed from Harari language (As the Cushitic languages doesn’t have “z” sound, and the words we listed here appear only in Harari language and the Harar dialect of the Oromo language, we can easily conclude that the Oromos of Harerge borrowed them from their Harari neighbours.)

 

The third feature of the Harar Oromo dialect is its maintaining many idiomatic expressions which are peculiar to the Harerghe region. For example, we can hear the Harar Oromos saying “miila kharaa khaayuu” (to put the leg in the road) which is to mean “to go”, “harka jabaatuu” (to be hard handed) to mean “to be thrifty, “dhukkee irraa khaasuu” (to blow dust on) to mean “to attack severely”.

There are two types of colloquiation among the Oromos of Harerghe. One is the traditional confederacy based colloquation, and the other is the urban-rural deviding colloquation. On confederacy level, the three tribes of the Harar Oromo (Ittu, Afran Qallo and Aniyya) have retained certain vocabularies and “phonetic” variants which can differentiate them from one another. For example, the Ittu Oromos say “eessa” for “where” but the Afran Qallo Oromos say “eeysa” which is phonetically different. While the Ittu Oromos say “diiddam” (twenty), the Afran Qallo Oromos say “diydam”; When the Ittus say “ishii” (her) the Afran Qallo Oromos say “isii”. On the Other hand the Ittu Oroms say “subaaxa” to mean “lunch”, but the Afran Qallo Oromos say “laaqana” for lunch. When the Ittu Oromos say “jibbuu” (to hate), the Afran Qallo Oromos say “jibbu” and “balfuu”; when Ittu Oromos say “indooyyee” (aunt-mother’s sister) the Afran Qallo Oromos say “haboo”. The Ittu Oromos say “khottee” for “nail”, the Afran Qalloo Oromos say “qeensa”.

 

The urban-rural deviding colloquiation is relatively a recent phenomenon. It is mostly a result of Afan Oromo’s high fusion with Arabic, Somali and Harari languages in the urban areas. For example, an urban house wife in Harerghe may call her female friend “geelee” in the manner of the Harari woman. The urban people say “faxara” for breakfast (in the word from Arabic), but the rural people simply call it “dhihena”; the urban people may say “shubbaaka” (also borrowed from Arabic) for window which the rural people call “fooddaa”.

 

One must not take the distinct usage of a dialect by the Oromos of Hareghe as something that separate them from other Oromos just as Ziyad Barre of Somalia was preaching 30 years ago. Even though they developed a unique dialect and certain traditions which are peculiar to them, the Oromos of Harerghe always consider themselves part of the greater Oromo nation.

Written by Afendi Muteki

January 12/2013.

Gelemso, West Harerghe

 

RE: Joint Appeal Letter of OSA, OCO, OYSA, HRLHA, and OSG on Human Rights Abuses in Ethiopia

anuary 25, 2013

Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
US Department of State
2201 C Street NW
Washington, DC 20520

 

Gadaa.com
Oromo opposition politicians, Bekele Gerba (left) and Olbana Lelisa (right)were arrested in August 2011 after speaking with Amnesty International officials. They were sentenced with seven other Oromos in November 2012 to long prison terms for working against the government.

Dear Honorable Secretary, The Oromo Studies Association (OSA), the Oromo Community Organization (OCO) of Washington D.C. Metropolitan area, the Oromo Youth Self-help Association (OYSA), the Human Rights League of the Horn of Africa (HRLHA), and the Oromia Support Group (OSG) are a diverse group of scholarly, community, and human rights organizations focusing on Ethiopia, particularly Oromia, the Oromo regional state in Ethiopia. We are writing this joint appeal letter to you to express our deep concern about the widespread human rights violations that continue unabated in Ethiopia and to request that the U.S. Department of State, under your able leadership, use its enormous influence with the government of Ethiopia to stop its arbitrary arrests, kidnappings, tortures and killings of innocent Oromos and other peoples of Ethiopia. The Oromo who constitute more than forty percent of the population of Ethiopia have become the target of attack by the minority Tigrayan Peoples Liberation Front’(TPLF) dominating Ethiopian regime.

Release Political Prisoners in Ethiopia
On November 1, 2012, two well-respected Oromo opposition politicians, Mr. Bekele Gerba (professor) and Mr. Olbana Lelisa, and seven other Oromo nationals, Welbeka Lemi, Adem Busa, Hawa Wako, Mohamed Melu, Dereje Ketema, Addisu Mikre and Gelgelo Gufa, were convicted and later sentenced to long term imprisonment under the charge of “working underground to secede Oromia from the federal government” and other concocted charges after being kept in jail for more than a year. The two opposition leaders were arrested in August 2011 after speaking with Amnesty International officials.

On September 30, 2012, about 200 Oromo youth, were rounded up and arrested when they were peacefully celebrating the annual Irreechaa festival (thanksgiving) at Lake Arsadi, Bushoftu, Oromia. Four months after their arrest, they are still held without any charge. The Human Rights League of the Horn of Africa (HRLHA) has published1 the names of 50 of the youth arrested at this festival. Moreover, arbitrary arrest of hundreds of Ethiopian Muslims on almost weekly basis has continued for about a year and there seems no end in sight to it. Just recently, on January 2, 2013, HRLHA has also published2 the names of 99 students of Addis Ababa University, mainly Oromos, who have been arrested and severely beaten.

Dear Honorable Secretary,

Over the past 21 years, the TPLF-led and dominated Ethiopian government, has imprisoned tens of thousands of political opposition and citizens, mainly Oromos. As the result of the government’s repressive policies, thousands of innocent citizens have been languishing in prisons and secret camps, and many have been severely tortured, deformed and/or killed. Others have been abducted and made to disappear. Hundreds have been murdered in broad day-light. Well respected human rights organizations such as Amnesty International3, Human Rights Watch4, and the US State Department’s5 own annual reports have documented rampant arrests, unlawful killings, abductions, tortures and other human rights abuses by the Ethiopian government. These reports are consistent with our own reports6 and direct experiences. We are frustrated because, despite these glaring facts, Ethiopia’s allies and Western donors are reluctant to restrain the government and halt its flagrant human rights abuses. Some donors even go on record to support the government’s wrong claim that Ethiopia is “on the road to democracy.” It is troubling that despite these well documented human rights abuses, the Ethiopian government continues receiving billions of dollars of aid money every year. Using over one third of its budget from foreign aid, Ethiopia has built one of the biggest and best-equipped armies in Africa, while millions of its citizens seek food aid. In fact, the aid money is used to impose the Tigrayan dictatorship and ethnocratic regime on Oromos and other peoples in a multinational society.

While thousands of Oromos and others are languishing in prisons under bogus terrorism charges, at a recent session of the parliament, the current Prime Minister of Ethiopia, Mr. Hailemariam Dessalegn, made an utterly false claim in public that there are no political prisoners in Ethiopia. Such blatant misinformation has been the norm of the entire leadership of the regime that is intended to deceive international donors and allies. In his inauguration speech, the new prime minister also promised to continue implementing the policies of the late dictatorial Prime Minister Meles Zenawi; this, is a clear indication that the new prime minister is under the control of the Tigrayan elite and that he cannot make any reform and democratic changes in Ethiopia.

Observing the painful agony and sufferings of the ordinary people, the political prisoners in particular, and the lack of any progress towards democratic change in Ethiopia, we earnestly appeal to you and the US government to use your influence with the Ethiopian government and facilitate the release of all political prisoners and to take practical action to promote real democratic changes in the country. We specifically request that you and the US government:

1. Use your enormous influence to put political, economic and diplomatic pressures upon the Ethiopian government to unconditionally release Mr. Bekele Gerba and Mr. Olbana Lelisa, and seven other Oromo nationals, who were sentenced to long term imprisonment on purely political grounds.

2. Advise the government of Prime Minister Hailemariam Dessalegn to respect the current Ethiopian constitution, and stop the regime’s extrajudicial killings and arbitrary arrests of innocent people and prolonged detention without trial.

3. Insist on the unconditional release of all political prisoners before providing economic aid to the regime.

4. Demand that the regime is committed to respecting human rights of the Oromo and other peoples of Ethiopia and allow freedom of expression and assembly.

5. Demand the repeal of all new laws that violate the fundamental freedom of citizens: particularly the so called Anti-terrorism Law, Press Law, the current law that prevents charitable organizations from freely moving in the country, and the most recent law that criminalizes the usage of Skype and other media tools.

6. Demand the regime to stop harassing journalists and jamming VOA and other free radio stations broadcasting to Ethiopia.

7. Demand to stop the unlawful evictions of Oromos and illegal selling of Oromo land immediately.

8. Demand that the regime respect freedom of religion and stop interfering in religious affairs.

Finally, we believe that unless international donors, mainly the US government, use their leverage and make meaningful pressure, the Ethiopian government will continue with political repression of the Oromo and other nations and nationalities. Therefore, we humbly request you to exert your energy and diplomatic skills to create conducive political environment for establishment of the rule of law in Ethiopia. We earnestly believe that as America’s top diplomat and principal voice on international issues, you have an extraordinary opportunity to alleviate the incredible human sufferings of the Oromo and other peoples in Ethiopia. We thank you for your interest in the wellbeing of the Oromo and other peoples of Ethiopia.

Sincerely,

LOON ABBAAN GAANFA CABSEE, ORMI IJA JAAMSA !!!!!

Y.G (2005) | Amajjii 15, 2013

Ummati Oromoo Biyya keessa jiru , hiraarrii dhala Namaa irratti hin raawwatamneetu irratti raawwatamaa jiraachuu guyyuu dhaga’amaa jirra. Wayyaaneen abdii kutannaan , miidhaan Ummata kana irraan ga’a jirtu , guyyuu dabalaa deemuu hundatu taajjabaa jira. Waggoota 21 dabran kana miidhaan gama hundaan Ummata Oromoo irra ga’aa jiru, kan baroota dhibbaa dachaa ,dachaan caala. Namummaan keenya, Sabummaan keenya, Qabeenyaan keenya, aadaan keenya Barbadeeffamaa jira. Dhalooti itti aanu beekumsaan, Ogummaan , Barnootaan, Namummaan hegareen isaa akka karaa hin qabanneef shirri waggaa 50tu of irraa baasuu hin dandeenyetu irratti hojjatamaa jira. wayyaanoonni fi waa’eellan isaanii , Biyya Itoophiyaa jedhamtu kana yoo xiqqaate waggaa 50f bulchuu fi yoo itti milkaa’aniif bara baraaf Ummatoota Biyyatti hacuucanii bituuf karoora lafaa qaban irraa ka’nii , sadarkaa 1ffaatti Ummata Oromoo fi qabasoo isaa irratti xiyyeeffatanii hojjachaa jiran.

Wayyaaneen , addatti gareen Obbo Barakatifaan durfamu, miidhaa ykn hiraarrii  fi shira Ummatoota irratti raawwatan akka isaan hin jiraachifne odoo beekanii , akkamiin waggaa 50 fi isaa oliif Biyyatti kana bulchina  jedhanii ofiitti amanamummaan dubbatu ?  gaaffiin jedhu yoo ka’e, deebiin afaan irratti nu dhufu, Qawwee abdatanitii kan jedhu xiqqaa hin ta’u . garuu deebiin kun quubsaa hin ta’u. wayyaaneen humnaan jiraachuuf bajata ol-aanaa ramadachuun ishee akkuma jirti ta’ee, irra caalaa abdii kan ta’uuf humnoota faallaa ishee jiran , haala keessa jiran hubachuu ykn akka gaaritti beeku irraatii. Wayyaaneen humna isheetti dhufu teessee kan eeggattu odoo hin taane, humna ishee sodaachisu amma teessuma isaatti itti dhaqxee , ka’umsa isaa diiguun , qawwee caalaa akka isaan jiraachisu waan beekaniif, har’a bajata waraanaaf baastu irra , maqaa gara garaan humna mormitootaa Biyya keessaa fi alaa laamsheessuuf baaftuu sadarkaa tokkoffaa ta’ee argama.

Wayyaaneen Ummatoota irraa abdii ega kutattee waggaa 10 ol lakkofsiftee jirti. Akka tarsiimootti Cichanii kan qabatanii jiran humnoota alaati. Kana jechuun Biyyoota Addunyaan harka isaanii jirtuuf tajaajiltuu taa’anii , mormitoonni hangamu dubbatan, Ummata miidhaa akka jiraattuf hayyama argachuu caalchifattee ,  hojjachaa jirti. Wayyaaneen Biyyoota siyaasa isheef murteessoo ta’an hundaa, Itoophiyaa keessaa addatti Oromiyaa keessaa dantaa Biyyummaa qofaa odoo hin taane , kan dhuunfaallee akka qabaatan taasiftee, Biyyoonni kun dhaabbilee mormitoota waliin akka hin dhaabbanne, ykn qabsoo Ummatoonni gaggeessan cinaa akka hin hiriirre taasisuuf, halkanii fi guyyaa hojjachaa jirti. Har’a kan mirga Ummatootaaf dubbatu akka dharaatti fudhatamee, kan Ummata guyyaa saafaa ajjeesaa jiru, haqa qabeessa ta’ee jiraatamaa jira.

Har’a wayyaaneen, yakka, dursitoota Biyyoota biro fannisisu caalaa Ummatoota irratti raawwataa jirti. Miidhaan har’a wayyaanoonni raawwataa jiran irra jireessi , maal na gootuu irraa madda. Wayyaaneen maatii duratti ijoollee qacalee rashantee jirti. Maatii duratti abbaa fi haadha ajjeeftee jirti. Saboota mana waliin gubdee jirti. Waraana itti duulchiftee rashantee jirti. Har’a Biyyatti keessatti , maatiin abbaa ykn haati ykn ijoolleen jalaa hin hidhamiin, biyyaa hin ari’amiin ykn hin ajjeefamiin hin jiru jechuutu danda’ama. Wayyaaneen beekaas haa ta’uu odoo hin beekiin Ummatoota sadarkaa dhumaan geesse jirti. haallii Biyya keessaa mumul’ataa jiru, wayyaanee haloo ba’uuf Ummatoonni murteeffachuudha. Ummatoonni sochii qabatamaa Qabsaa’oota isaanii taasisaa jiran cinaa hiriiranii wayyaanee konkolaachiisuu eeggachaa jiran.

Keessattu akka ragaatti kaasuu kan dandeenyu , QEERROON OROMOO sochii itti jiranudha. Kana malees Barattoonni fi dargaggoonni Oromoo sochiin itti jiran wayyaaneef mataa dhukkubbii ta’uu isaanu ragaa ba’aa jiran. Wayyaaneen har’allee barattotaa fi ummata isaan cinaa hiriiran hidhuu fi ajjeesu hin dhaabne. Ajjeechaa fi hidhaan kun ammo, abbaa irrummaa isaanii qofaa kan mul’isu odoo hin taane, “Ummati waa illee nu irraan hin ga’u, akka fedha keenyaa ajjeesaa jiraannaa , eenyutu ijaa nu ba’a” jedhanii humna jabaan akka ummata kanaan duuba hin jirretti ilaalu irraa akka ta’ee ragaa hedduu tarrisuun ni danda’ama. Mee kan fagoo dhiifnee , waan barattoota yunivarsitii Finfinnee dhiheenyuma kana irratti raawwatame haa ilaallu. Barattoonni kun waan lafaa ka’nii sirnicha sa’a sanatti morman hin qaban. “MORMUUN MIRGA ISAANII TA’UUN”akka jirutti ta’ee  jechuudha. Maqaa eenyummaa keenya xuquun kan shirri irratti hojjatamee fi arrabsaman ilmaan Oromooti. Kan heddumminaan hidhames ilmaan Oromooti. Maddi hammeenya kanaa  abbaa irrummaa qofaa miti . maal fiddudha. Ummata kanaaf kabajaa dhabuu fi tuffachuu irraa madda.

“Wayyaanoonni Qawwee hanga fedhe qabaatanis, qawwee isaanii caalaa kan isaan yaaddessu qabeenyaa kuufataniidha. Qawwee isaanis ta’u qabeenyaa isaanii , akkasumas hegaree isaanii yaaddoo keessa galchuu qofaatu , Namummaa keenya akka fudhatan taasisa.”

Wayyaaneen sadarkaa 1ffaatti Qabsoo Oromoo irraa soda guddaa qabdi . sodaan kun har’a , akka kaleessaa Angoo Isaaniif kan isaan yaaddeessu qofaa odoo hin taane, Qabeenyaa Oromiyaa keessatti kuufataniifis yaadda’a jiru. Wayyaanee miti abbaan fedhe hegaree isaaf yaaduun waan jiraati. Waan hegaree isaaf isa yaaddeessu yoo hin jiraatiin, hammeenya hojjachaa jiru inuma itti fufa malee, irraa hin dhaabbatu. Waan wayyaaneen keessa jirtuu kanadha. “Maal fiddu” wayyaaneef sababaan  qawwee of harkaa qabaachuu qofaa odoo hin taane, humna faallaa  isheetii ishee  yaaddessu dhibuudha. Kun dhibuun ammoo , wayyaaneen Ummatoota irratti tarkaanfii barbaadde fudhachuun mirga ishee akka ta’etti guyyuu midiyaatti baatee saalfii tokkoo malee akka lallabdu hamilee kenneef.  Nama 192 daqiiqaa gabaabduu keessatti ajjeesanii , tarkaanfiin fudhatame madaalawaadhaa  akka jedhan taasise. Ilmaan Oromoo kuma 60 ol hidhaatti naqanii , ykn dhala Oromoo ajjeesanii waraabeessa nyaachisanii , tarkaanfiin kun madaalawaadha isaan jechisisa. Barataan eenyummaan isaa salphifamef dubbachuu irra , salphina kee fudhachuutu sirra jiraa jedhanii hidhaatti gatuuf hamilee kenneef.

LOON ABBAAN GAANFA CABSEE, ORMI  IJA   JAAMSAA    !!!!!

Kaleessa haa xiqqaatu iyyuu , Qooqaa fi aadaa argattee maal barbaadda ? kan siin jechaa ture, har’a jiraachuun kee iyyuu sirrii mitii jedhee, siin si buqqisee kan galaana ce’ee ykn Biyya isaa ganee ba’e yoo sirra qubsiise , ilaalchi diinaa kun , Angoof ykn saamicha irratti kan hundaa’eedha jennee dhiisuu dandeenyaa ? Diinni guutummaatti , qabsoo keenya irratti xiyyeeffatee hojjata. Achi asi akka diinaatti nu keewwatee sochii keenya tokkon tokkoo isaa hordafee fashalsuuf hojjataa jira. Akka itti jirru irraas , maal fiddu ? jedhee dararaa Ummata keenyaa hammeessaa jira. Diina akkasitti nu irratti hojjatuuf dawaan isaa maalii ? diina akkasii maalin dura dhaabbatan ? deebii kanaa kan wallaalu jira jedhee gonkumaa hin yaadu . deebii kanaa kan wallaale, maal fiddu wayyaaneef sabaabaan maal akka ta’e huabchuu hin danda’u. mee kana waliin madaalaa ?

Wayyaaneen diinummaa qorannoo irratti hundaa’ee , waggaa dheeraaf nu gabroomsuuf nu irratti hojjachaa jirti . waggaa 21f ummata keenya irraan miidhaa dubbatanii hin fixiin raawwattee jirti . Ilmaan OROMOO kuma 60 ol manneen hidhaa dhoksaa fi ifaa keessatti hiitee jirti. Qotatee bultoota qabeenyaa isaanii irraa buqqiftee , dachee isaanii gatii rakkasaan gurguru qofaa odoo hin taane, Abbaa biyyaa deebiftee humna isaa gatii rakasaan dhamaasa jirti

Gama biroon , hiraarriin Ummata keenya irra ga’u guutee danbali’ee , Ummati wayyaanee waliin wal huunee duuna jechaa wayita jiru kanatti ,Barattoonni Oromoo  kaampaasii tokko keessaa 100 ol hidhaatti guuramanii hiraarfamaa jiranitti , sagantaa siyaasaa fi seera bulmaataa akka haaraatti baafanne jechuun wayyaaneen maal fidduu” jettuf sababaa hin ta’uu ? Ummati biyya keessaa akkatti nu eegaa jiru waliin wal gitaa ? isayyuu seerri bulmaataas ta’ee , sagantaan siyaasaa ba’u , qabsoo Ummatichaa amna waggaa 40 deeme bishaanitti naqun socha’uun madaa keenya fayyisaa ? dhaabni kamuu yeroo hundaa’uu , waan akeekkatu qaba . akeeki ykn sagantaan isaa kun , Ummata qabsaa’uuf irratti hundaa’ee ba’a malee, dhaaba ofiifu keessa turan xureessanii , ykn dadhabiina humna tokko jedhanii yaadanii jiran irratti waan hundaa’u natti hin fakkaatu .

Wayyaaneen  ABOn Ashabbaariidhaa , dhiphoodhaa , Ummata bakka hin bu’uu , dandeettii hin qabanii, kkf jedhee Ummata biratti hadheessuu yaalaa . dhaabni Oromoofan dhaabbadhe jedhus, jechuma diinaa kana irra deebinee yoo  ABO  ittin abaaru yaalee, tuffii wayyaanee dursee kaaseef ka’umsa hin ta’uu ? WMOn sochii Itoophiyaa Dimokiraatoofte keessa Oromoo jiraachiisuuf sochii taasisu keessatti , ABO diinonfatee ka’uu hin qabu. ABO jechuun Namoota dhuufaa dhaabicha keessaa , jibbinu miti . ABOn dhaaba . ABOn yaada .  Namoonni ABO ijaaran hundi har’a  keessa hin jiran. Kan wareegamanis ni jiran. Dhaloota tokko irraa dhalooti biraas harkaa fuudhaa jira. Kanaaf ABOn kaayyoo Ummataa waan ta’eef , kaayyoo ummataa diinefachuun karaa hedduu nama hin deemsiisu. Namoonni ykn Hoogganoonni kaayyoo ABO gaggeessan , wareegamuus, keessaa ba’us, ganuus ni danda’an. Tokkon isaanii garuu kaayyichatu sirri mitii kan jedhu dhaga’ee hin beeku. har’a garuu WMOn qabxii mariif qopheesse keessatti keewwate jira. Ummati miliyoona afurtamaa ol ta’u ilaalchuma tokko  qofaa qabaachuu qaba jennee obboleessa keenyaaf boolla qotuun furmaata nu argamsiisaa ? kaayyoon ABOn qabatee jiru  , Yoo deeggarsa ummata miliyoonaan lakkaa’amu qabaachuun odoo beekamuu, lakkii waggaa 40f yaalle ta’uu dide yennaa jennu, dhaloota harka qullaa diina falmaa jiru tuffachuu hin ta’u ? xiinxalli dhaaba kaleessa tarkaanfachiisuu dhorkaa turee, bara dheeraa alumatti akka hafu taasisuu keessaa qooda qabaachuu odoo ifatti beeknu, ABO dhabamsiisuutu milkiin nu ga’a jennee, diina dhala Oromoo waggaa 21 guutuu hiraarsaa fi ajjeesaa jiru waliin karaa nagaa hojjanna jechuun beekumsa qabnu waliin wal madaalaa ? adeemsi waggaa 40 dhaaba maqaa baafachuuf deemuuf bu’ura ijaramu yoo ta’e, yoo karaan nagaan hojjatamu argamee, Biyya galamee wayyaanee waliin dhaaba kaleessa hundeessan abaaruuf deemama jechuudhaa? wayyaaneen dhaabbilee Oromoo nu waliin abaaraa , isaan waliin jiraachuu dhiisuu keessaniif ragaan kana jechuun waan hin hafne. (yaada biyya seenu kan jedhu yeroon kaasu,WMOn biyya seenuuf raga qabaadhee ykn kan isaan dubbatan qabaadhee odoo hin taane, jecha “karaa Nagaa “ jettu irraa ka’ee akka ta’ee naaf hubadhaa .)

Wal ga’iin marii “hawaasa alaa waliin taasifame irra jireessi ABOn qabsoo Oromoo fiixaan baasu hin dandeenye kan jedhu irratti xiyyeeffata. Wixineen jiru kana ibsa.  maarree kun eessaan nama ga’a. Ani akka Oromoo tokkotti ” Itoophiyaa Dimokiraatofte “  keessa Oromoon jiraachuun bu’aa qaba kan jedhu irraa mormii hin qabu. Kun ilaalcha . ilaalcha Ummata keenya keessa jiru ta’uu mala. Kaayyoodha . warra ilaalcha kana deeggaraniif. Ilaalchi kun garuu meeshaa namootaaf ta’ee , waggaa 40 qabsoo harkifate komachaa, karaa nagaan Biyyas seenamu, qabsoo gabaabsu akka hin taane beeku barbaachisa. Ani akkan hubadhutti Kaayyichatu waggaa 40 of harkise odoo hin taane, ykn Ummata biratti fudhatama waan dhabeef harkifate odoo hin taane, gufuulee qabsoo keessatti umameetu isa harkise. Walabummaa Oromiyaa fi Bilisummaa Ummata Oromoo kan jedhu irraas mormii hin qabu . kun ilaalcha. Kaayyoodha. Ummata miliyoona 40tu ilaalcha kana qaba jennee yoo dhaadhessine, mirga ilaalcha biro qabaachuu dhorkuus ta’a. Lameen keessaa kan Ummata kiyyaaf ta’u keessa koo jira. Garuu warra ilaalcha koo hin deeggarre , bu’ura rakkoo ilaalcha kiyya hin taasisu. Kun of eeggannoo barbaada. Yoo akkas ta’e, wayyaaneenis ABO abaara . OPDOnis ABO abaara . Ginboot 7s. “ABO” Of jalaan qaba jechaa ABO abaara . maarree gaaddarumsi jiru maaliii ? diina irraa firaan abaaramuudhaa ? yeroo tokko tokko yennaan yaadu waan itti gaddu hedduun qaba. Nama ykn Hoggana keessaa ykn akka walii galaatti jibban qabuf jedhee , akkamiinan kaayyoo Ummataa irratti gufu ta’a.? yoo anaaf hin taane, isaanifis hin milkaa’iin jennee akkamiin kaayyoo ummataa gufachiifna ? kaayyoo biraa ummata keenyaaf furmaata argamsiisu eegallee ega jedhamee, waan kaayyoo haaraa kanaan kan wal hin simne kaayyoo biraa xiinxaluun maaliif barbaachise ? kun deebi quubsaa isa barbaachisa .

Mee seenaa tokkon isiniif hima :-

Bara 1991 baatii dhuma Hagayyaa, akka gi’iizitti bara haaraa 1985 qaammee 6 wal ga’ii ABOn Ummata magaalaa Finfinnee waliin Galma yunivarsitii 4 kilootti gaggeessee ture. bara sana umuriin kiyya waggaa 23n ture. Galmi sun yoo xiqqaate Namoota 3000 ol qabatee ture. Barattoonni oromoo eebbifamanis turan. Yeroo Xilaahuun Gassasaa Afaan Oromoon Ummata isaa biratti sirbe qofaaf(SIWWIR ONAG) jedhame san . wal ga’ii kana irratti Hogganoota ABO yeroosi keessaa 2 argamanii Ummata mariisisaa turan. Gaaffii ummataafillee deebii laachaa turan. Ammaaf maqaa hin dhahu . garuu gaaffii ummata biraa gaafatame tokko fi ideebii laatame dhiheessuun garu dansaadha.

Maanguddoo Baalee dhufantu akkas jedhee gaafate . ABO kan quba qabuutu beeka .dhufu keessaniif gammachuu qabna . garuu jara kana maalitti amantanii waliin hojjachuuf dhuftan ? kaayyoo akkamiitu waliin isin dhaabe ? bor kan nuuti wareegamnetti isiniin hin jedhanii ? ega waliin dhuftanii ykn Oromoof ABOn jiraachuu ega beekanii , isa isaan ijaaranii dhufan kun maalii ?qophii isaan dura boruu isin dhaabu qabduu ? jedhanii gaafatan . deebiin laatame, dhugaadha jara kana amma dhumaatti amannee waliin hin dhufne. Akki balballi nutti hin cufamneef qophee miillaa jala keenye jirra. Seenuun keenyas ammuma sana. Ummatuma biratti dhaabni kun jiraachuu hubachiisu dhufne . akka sodaanne odoo hin taane, kunoo galmi kunuu guute jira. Kun nuuf gammachuudha.  OPDOn nu biratti fudahtama hin qabdu . odoo diigaa jennuu ijaaran . kana dhorkuu hin dandeenyu . ummatatu filata . garuu wayyaanee hin sodaatiinaa . wayyaaneen kan ofiin dhaabbattee miti. Kan jooniyyaa/keeshaa  keessatti ishee naqee Afaan keeshaa kanaa hidheetu jira. Abbaan hidhe kun gaafa hike, bakka itti qaban hin qabdu. Tafkii keeshaa keessatti hidhamee ture , afaan isaa yoo hiikan bakka itti qaban qabaa ? akkasitti ilaalaa . kaayyoo kan jedhame , sirna Fedaraalizimii irratti walii gallee . kanaan ala wanni walitti nu hidhu hin jiru.”jedhame.  Hogganni yeroos deebii kana laatan amma ABO keessa hin jiran . garuu qabsoo amma  wal dhimbiibaa jiru keessa jiru . waan waggaa 21 dura jedhame kun , yeroo ammaa kana irraa geeddarumsa qabaa ?  deebii kanaa yeroo biraaf bulfanna.

Gama biroon , humni kaleessa micciirama ofiin jedhee bakka Afuritti adda ba’ee keessaa , Itoophiyaa Amaaraan Dimokiraatofte keessa jiraachuu dandeenya jedhu, Ilmaan Oromoo WBO ajjeesuu , hiisisuun wayyaaneen irraa Birgeedar Janaraalummaa fudhates, Nama lama ta’anii qabsoo gaggeessaa jiraachu , Afaan tokkitti Itophiyaan nuttii himaa jiran . warri kun ammo Ginboot 7 laciqunochi ye qoome nawu jechaa , kaleessa ABOtti yennaa makaman kan dubbatan “ Oromon kana booda halagaaf hin ergamuu “ dagatanii ,warra kaleessa itti baqatan diigne malee jechaa jiran.. dhaaba nafxanyyotaa XIMIRAT jedhamu keessatti , IMMIYYEE ITOOPHIYAA KEESSATTI UMMATA WAYYABA QABAACHUU ISAANII AJAJAA WARAANAA ximirat  ta’uun mirkaneessuf  arreedaa jiran . jarri kunis, Hoggana ykn miseensaa fi kaayyoo adda odoo hin baafnee, qabsoon Oromoo miidiyaa irraa malee qabatamaan hin jiru jechaa jiran. ABO keessa yennaa turan , waraana tokkollee odoo hin ijaariin waggaa muraasa keessatti badii diiggaa gaggeessanii , Ginboot 7 keessatti garuu waraana ijaaruuf yaada Afaanii hanga funyaanii arjoomaa jiru . hubadhaa waraanni kun boruu WBO dura dhaabbachuuf deema . maaliif yoo jedhame kaayyootu nu waliin hin fudhatuf. JJJJoonni kun, waraana meeqa of jalaa qabduu ? Asmaraa keessa isin nama meeqaa ?warra Daangaan Itoophiyaa galaana diimaadha jedhan waliin dhaabbachuun keessan, warra gabatee irraa nyaate cabsan isini hin taasisuyii ? yoo jedhaman maal deebisu laata ?

Kana kaasuun keenya, Siyaasa warra gawwaa keessaa haa baanu jechuufii . kana malees, miidhaa Ummata Biyya keessaa irra ga’uuf , waan nuuti keessa jirru ykn qabsoon keenya keessa jiru, diinaaf hamilee ta’aa kan jedhu irraatii . Kana caalaa waa hedduu kaasuun ni danda’ama . siyaasa Oromoo keessatti , dhaaboonni Oromoo Ilaalcha barbaadan qabaatan, kufaatii walii hawwuu hin qaban . Oromiyaa dhiifnee, Itoophiyaa Dimokiraatofteef obboleessi koo haa dhabamu jechuun nagummaa hin ibsu. Deeggarsa ummata ofiis nama dhabsiisa. Nafxanyaa kaleessa ummata keenya rashantee caalchifannee waan kaleessa itti baqannee xureessuuf yaaluun ummataaf yaadu miti. Qabsoon kun lafa irra harkifate jechaa , har’a akka haaraatti sagantaa kaleessa ture dabaluun , tarii sochii fi fedhii nu keessa jiru milkeessuu hin ta’uu haa huabannu.

Ummatatu Biyya keessaa dhumaa jira . dhalootatu gara laafina tokko malee ajjeefamaa jira. Jibba namoota dhuunfaa irraa qabnuun kaanee , sochii jiru kan komannu yoo ta’e , boris bakka amma jirru komachuu ykn keessaa ba’uun keenya hin hafuuti, ummata dhaabbanneef jennuun maal jechaa akka jirru haa qalbeeffannu. Oromoo ta’anii dhalatanii , ABO ta’anii , achi wayyaanee ta’anii , deebi’anii ABO ta’anii , achi ammo micciirama ta’anii , deebi’anii Ginboot 7 yoo ta’an , boruu kan biro ta’uu dhiisuuf ragaa maaliitu jira. ? kanaaf wanni haasa’anii fi hojjatan amma hancufaatti ilaaluun boodi isaa salphina ta’a.

Gorsa yoo ta’ef :-

Wayyaaneen OPDO tarsiimoo siyaasaaf akka ijaarte har’a dhala Oromootti hin himan. Garuu wayyaaneen OPDOn Ummata Oromoo biratti fudhatama akka argatu hin feetu turte. Maaliif yoo jedhame, OPDOn Ummatatti hiiqee ykn fudhatama argate jennaan , ABO ta’aa jettee waan amantuufii . kanaaf miseensoota OPDO ummata biratti jibbisiisuuf toftaan itti gargaaramtu miidiyaa irra ba’anii ABO akka abaaran taasisuu ture. Gama kanaan shirri Junaddii saaddoo irratti hojjatame isa hangafaatii . ABO abaarii jedhaniin. ABO abaaru irra taree , Barattoonni addi isaanii rasaasaan akka rukutamu, meeccaa fi tuulamni akka salphifamu fi cufamu taasise. Kana booda ummati siif safuu jedheen. Xiiqii keessa ega galchanii booda , ABOtu kana si irratti hojjataa jiraa, atis irratti hojjadhuu jedhanii , ABO akka diiguuf shira gorsan. Innis ABO gumaa ba’uuf maadhee ijaarrachuu miti, Biyya alaattu bobba’ee dabballummaa eegale. Deemee deemee, Awustiraaliyaatti salphate. Isa booda Biyyatti deebi’ee shira amma ittiin darbatame qophaa’eef. Mee hubadhaa egaa !!!!!!Lammiifis hin taane, diinaafis hin taane, ofiifis hin taane, maatii ofiifis hin taane, of irra dabree maatii isaa gaaga’e. sababaan kana hundaa Kaayyoo ABO dura dhaabbachuu fi Abaaruudha yaa firaa .

ofitti amanamummaa qabaannaan maaliif waan jennu hojiidhaan mul’ifnee ABO caalaa Ummata Oromoo biratti fudhatama hin argannu. Anaaf Gootummaan isa kana ! ABO dhufachuuf qabsofna moo , diina mo’achuuf qabsoofna ? moo injifannoo ummata Oromoof Qabsoofna ? sammuun gadi bu’ee akkas yaadu, akkamiin hogganummaan of yaada ? ABO walabummaa Oromiyaa fi Bilisummaa Ummata Oromoof falmuu fi ABO Itoophiyaa Dimokiraatoftef falmu jennee socha’uu dandeenyaa ? ykn ABO Immiyyee Itoophiyaaf falmu jennee of salphifnaa yaa firaa ?????yaadumti kun qobaa isaa ,Ummata abbaa hin qabne jedhee diinni hiraarrii akka raawwatuuf hamilee hin ta’ufi ???????????????????????

Kana caalaa deemu hin fedhu . haallan kunniin , tarkaanfii wayyaanee Biyya keessaa jabaachuu fi maal fiddun ummata keenya ,tarkaanfii barbaaddu irratti fudhattee akka jiraattuf hamilee ta’eef. Kanaafan LOON ABBAAN GAANFA CABSEE, ORMI  IJA   JAAMSA !!!!! jedhe barruu har’aa katabe. Humnoonni har’a fageessanii ilaalu dadhabanii kaayyoo sabichaa Nama dhuunfaatti hiikanii kabajaa wal dhabsiisaa jiran ykn diina caalchifataa jiran, yeroon obboleessa isaaniin naa dhaqqabiif wal barbaadan fagoo miti . Ilaalchaan adda ba’uun, Oromummaan adda ba’uu miti !!!

– Burqaa430@gmail.com

Breket Simon hinting that he will resign from his ministerial and party positions

January 15, 2013

bereket_simonBereket Simon whose stature started to get eroded after the death of his close comrade and friend Melese Zenawi is starting to feel the heat of animosity from TPLF cadres who despised his rise to power during the Meles era.

Bereket all along knew that after the death of Meles Zenawi, his political life would be over. Nonetheless, he tried his best to appear more catholic than the pope when he appeared in various Eritrean Paltalk rooms where he was exhibiting holier than thou image and trying to be more TPLF than TPLFites themselves when it comes to “Shabiya”.

The problem is that his attempts were so futile and backfired on him. Many TPLFites started saying who gave this guy a green light to talk about sensitive issues regarding the border dispute?

When Bereket admitted to his Eritrean audience that Badme belongs to Eritrea, but he emphasized that the main problem with “Shabiya” is not the town but its destabilizing activities, his admission put him on hot seat and he never recovered from that debacle.

Now Bereket is contemplating to resign from all his positions under the guise of planned succession plan drawn by the late dictator.

Others like Nahom and Neway who were protected by Meles are believed to be next to fall.

The days for PM Haile Mariam Desalegn’s resignation will also be numbered, because he is the elect of Bereket Simon.

WAAMICHA IBSA ARAARAA FI WALHUBANNOO ABO, SHG FI QC

ABO

Waliif  Galan Alaa  Galan!!!!!

                WAAMICHA IBSA ARAARAA FI WALHUBANNOO ABO,  SHG FI QC

Ummata Oromoo Magaalaa Ottawaaf Naannoo Ishee.

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A Persistent Story of Expropriation, Humiliation and Displacement

 

By Mekuria Bulch

The first version of this article was published under the title Greater Addis Ababa in the Making: Stop Them, or Keep Quiet and Perish in 2003.  The sub-title is added now. My main aim then was to awaken the Oromo to a tragedy which was in the making in connection to the decision, made by the Ethiopian regime, regarding the status of Finfinnee as the capital city of Oromia. I am republishing the article for readers’ reflection in relation to the problems the Oromo students at Finfinnee/Addis Ababa University are facing at this moment. The demands made by the editor of Gadaa.com recently agree with the suggestions I made back in December 2003, when I wrote the first version of the article as a commentary in support of the Macca-Tuulama Association’s protest against the decision of the Ethiopian regime to evict Oromo institutions from Finfinnee and relocate them in Adama, a town about 100km south of the city.

The first version of the article was published in both English and Afaan Oromoo on December 6, 2003, and also broadcast on Oromo radio stations. A copy of the article was also included as a background document in a petition submitted to the United Nations Secretary General Kofi Annan on 13 January 2005 by delegates representing the Oromo Studies Association (OSA), and the Oromo Communities in North America and Europe. Some changes are made in this version in order to update it.

Following the 2005 elections in which the Ethiopian Peoples’ Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) lost its seats and a ‘mandate’ to rule the capital city to the opposition, the late PM of Ethiopia, Mr. Meles Zenawi, made an opportunistic turn and withdrew the decision of making Adama the capital city of Oromia evicting Oromo institutions from Finfinnee, which hitherto had been the capital city of both Oromia and Ethiopia. The aim was to win Oromo support. Although the decision to end Finfinnee’s status as the capital city of Oromia was aborted, the problems which were raised in 2003 have remained, not only unresolved, but some of them have even been exacerbated. The eviction of the Oromo from the city’s surroundings has continued and thousands of Oromo families have been displaced to open space for the expanding city. Thus, the expropriation of Oromo property, which started about 120 years ago, has continued and is extended by the present regime to other districts around Finfinnee in all directions. The regime is building “Greater Addis Ababa” displacing the Oromo population. As the cause and consequences of the recent clash between Oromo and Tigrayan students indicates, the Oromo are still being provoked, denigrated and persecuted by the oppressive regime that will displace them from their city.

Introduction

On November 30, 2003, the Macca-Tuulama Association (MTA), an Oromo mass organization with its headquarters in Addis Ababa since the early 1960s, released a statement opposing the on-going eviction of Oromo institutions from Finfinnee (Addis Ababa) and the planned separation of the city from the regional state of Oromia. The forced removal of Oromo institutions was planned and implemented by the current government of Ethiopia. The MTA indicated that the city of Addis Ababa, called Finfinnee by its indigenous inhabitants, is a historical homeland of the Oromo people and argued that the Ethiopian government’s plan to forcibly evacuate Oromo institutions and the offices of the regional government of Oromia is, not only illegal, but a criminal act planned to undermine the cultural rights of about 600,000 Oromos (or 20 per cent of Finfinnee’s population which, according to Central Statistical Agency was 2,980,000 in 2011) and to eventually evict many of them from the city. The association maintained that this is an act of ethnic cleansing, violating, not only the UN Convention on Human and Peoples Rights, but also the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Ethiopia of 1994, which provides that “The special interest of the State of Oromia in Addis Ababa, regarding provision of social services or the utilisation of natural resources and other similar matters, as well as joint administrative matters arising from the location of Addis Ababa within the State of Oromia, shall be respected.” (Article 49/5)

When I wrote the first version of this commentary in 2003, my intention was not to narrate the history of Finfinnee/Addis Ababa, but to comment on the appeal made by the Macca-Tuulama Association to the international community to help them stop the Ethiopian government’s plan to uproot them and other Oromo institutions from Finfinnee. Although three episodes I have described below and the historical documents cited support the claims which the association made to Finfinnee on behalf of the Oromo nation, my intention to investigate the events which occurred in the past was not to argue that city belongs (or should belong) only to its indigenous population, but to reveal the impunity with which generations of Abyssinian leaders have treated the Oromo in their homeland, in this case in their city, Finfinnee.

As I have argued in 2003, although appealing to the international community for moral, legal and material support is the right thing to do when violation of their basic rights occurs, that alone is not going to protect the Oromo from the violence of the Ethiopian ruling elites because they seem to be obsessed with the idea of dispossessing and uprooting, or as in the case of the present attack on the Oromo students at Finfinnee University, humiliating their subjects. Persistent struggle is needed in order to end the impunity with which the Oromo are treated in their city and homeland. Fredrick Douglass, the famous anti-slavery African American once said that:

Those who profess to favor freedom, and yet depreciate agitation, are men who want crops without plowing up the ground. They want rain without thunder and lightning. They want the ocean without the awful roar of its waters. This struggle may be a moral one; or it may be a physical one; or it may be both moral and physical; but it must be a struggle. Power concedes nothing without demand. It never did, and it never will. Find out just what people will submit to, and you have found out the exact amount of injustice and wrong which will be imposed upon them; and these will continue till they are resisted with either words or blows, or with both. The limits of tyrants are prescribed by the endurance of those whom they oppress.

Although Fredrick Douglass’s words were about the injustice of slavery in America in the past, they have a lot of relevance for the Oromo situation. The Oromo should make sacrifices, more than ever before, in order to stop this outrageous violation of their rights, or follow the fate of many indigenous peoples who were unable to protect themselves and have now become extinct. Having said that, I will proceed with the discussion of the different historical episodes leading to the eviction of the Oromo from Finfinnee.

I. Amhara Predators Raid Finfinnee: 1843

Ethiopian history books tell us that the Amharic-speaking community of Menz started to expand from its mountain stronghold in the early eighteenth century to become the Abyssinian rulers of Shawa at the time of Sahle Sellasie (r.1813 to 1847). In 1843 Sahle Sellasie went on one of the predatory raids, he usually conducted twice and often three times a year, into the Tuulama Oromo territory bordering on kingdom of Shawa. Major W. C. Harris, who was sent on a diplomatic mission to Shawa leading a British delegation and followed Sahle Sellasie on several of his raiding expeditions against the Oromo during the 18 months he stayed in the country, reported what he witnessed in his book The Highlands of Aethiopia (1844, Vols. I-III). Harris depicted vividly what he saw while following Sahle Sellasie on his many raiding expeditions against the Oromo. One of these expeditions took place 180 years ago in December, 1843 against Finfinnee, a cluster of prosperous Oromo villages with rich farm lands and numerous life-giving springs and wooded valleys. The quotations in this paper are from Vol. II (p. 185-198) of Harris’ book. What he wrote was corroborated by Johann L. Krapf (Travels, Researches, and Missionary Labours, 1858, 1968) who was in Shawa during the same period. Harris saw Finfinnee from a hill as the Amhara forces descended on it. He called the vast and thickly populated plain lying at the foot of the Entotto hills “the very picture of peace and plenty.” He wrote,

Hundreds of cattle grazed in tempting herds over the flowery meads [meadows]. Unconscious of danger, the unarmed husbandman [herdsman] pursued his peaceful occupation in the field; his wife and children carolled blithely over their ordinary household avocations; and the ascending sun shone bright on smiling valleys, which, long before his going down, were left tenanted [occupied] only by the wolf and the vulture.

Harris noted that, after conferring for a while with an Orthodox priest acting as his father confessor, Sahle Sellasie ordered the expectant army to “carry fire and sword through the land.” What followed was exactly what the king ordered his forces to do.

Rolling on like the mighty waves of the ocean, down poured the Amhára host among the rich glades and rural hamlets, at the heels of the flying inhabitants—tramping underfoot the fields of the ripening corn, in parts half reaped, and sweeping before them the vast herds of cattle which grazed untended in every direction. When far beyond the range of vision, their destructive progress was still marked by the red flames that burst forth in turn from the thatched roofs of each village; and the havoc committed many miles to the right by the division of Abagáz Maretch, who was advancing parallel to the main body, and had been reinforced by the detachment under Ayto Shishigo, became equally manifest in numerous columns of white smoke, towering upwards to the azure firmament in rapid succession.

Having indicated the utmost satisfaction expressed in Sahle Sellasie’s eyes while watching the progress of his forces who “poured impetuously down the steep side of the mountain and swept across the level plain,” the British envoy continues to describe the magnificent view over the country that was devoured by sword and fire. The “beautifully secluded valley of Finfinni, which, in addition to … high cultivation, and snug hamlets”, he wrote, “boast a large share of natural beauty. Meadows of the richest green turf, sparkling clear rivulets leaping down in sequestered cascades, with shady groves of the most magnificent juniper lining the slopes, and waving their moss-grown branches above cheerful groups of circular wigwams, surrounded by implements of agriculture, proclaimed a district which had long escaped the hand of wrath.” And as the troops “performed their bloody work” and the air became dark with the smoke coming from scores of burning Oromo villages,

The luckless inhabitants, taken quite by surprise, had barely time to abandon their property, and fly [flee] for their lives to the fastness of Entotto … The spear of the warrior searched every bush for the hunted foe. Women and girls were torn from their hiding to be hurried into helpless captivity Old men and young were indiscriminately slain and mutilated among the fields and groves; flocks and herds were driven off in triumph, and house after house was sacked and consigned to the flames … Whole groups and families were surrounded and speared within the walled courted yards, which were strewed with the bodies of the slain. [Those] who betook themselves to the open plain were pursued and hunted down like wild beasts; children of three and four years of age, who had been placed in the trees with the hope that they might escape observation, were included in the inexorable massacre, and pitilessly shot among the branches. In the course of two hours the division left the desolated valley laden with spoil, and carrying with them numbers of wailing females and mutilated orphan children, together with the barbarous trophies that had been stripped from the mangled bodies of their murdered victims.

Continuing with his description of the woes and destruction inflicted upon Finfinnee’s inhabitants who, as mentioned above, lived a peaceful and happy life just moments before the invaders descended on them, Harris wrote:

The hoarse scream of the vulture as she wheeled in funeral circles over this appalling scene of carnage and devastation, mingled with the crackling of falling roofs and rafters from the consuming [burning] houses, alone disturbed the grave-like silence of the dreary and devoted spot, so lately resounding to the fiendish shouts and war whoops of the excited warriors, and to the un-pitied groans of their helpless captives … gloomy columns of smoke rising thick and dense to the darkened heavens, for miles in every direction, proclaimed that this recently so flourishing and beautiful location had in a few brief hours been utterly ruined, pillaged, and despoiled, as far as the means of ruthless and savage man could effect its destruction.

After looting and destroying Finfinnee, the Amhara forces marched to Eekkaa (Yekkaa), today a suburb of Finfinnee/Addis Ababa. Harris noted that “the Abyssinian system of warfare consists in surprise, murder, and butchery, not in battle or fair conflict.” The reason for avoiding open engagement by Sahle Sellasie was in fact that the Oromo had repeatedly defeated him in battle. Taking the Eekkaa Oromo by surprise, his forces repeated their work of destruction they have already performed in Finfinnee. Harris wrote,

As the evening approached the scattered forces began to rendezvous around the state umbrellas, now unfurled, to which they were directed by the incessant beating of kettle-drums. Whilst the work of destruction still continued to rage on all sides, herd after herd of lowing beeves [cattle) pouring towards the royal standard, and each new foraging party brought with it fresh groups of captive women and girls, and the barbarous tokens of their prowess ... The slaughter had been immense. Every desolated court-yard was crowded with the bodies of the slain—childhood and decrepit age fared alike; murderers, unconscious of the disgrace attaching to unmanly deeds, unblushingly heralded their shame, and detailing their deeds of cruelty, basked in the smiles of their savage and approving monarch ... (emphasis mine).

Night Life in the Predators Camp

Harris wrote that after fourteen hours of raiding, looting, killing and burning, the weary forces halted in the Eekkaa valley.  The “horses and mules were ... turned loose among the standing beans, and several thousand head of cattle [43,000, see Sven Ege, Class, State, and Power in Africa: A case Study of the Kingdom of Shawa, 1996] tired to death with the distance they had been driven from their … pastures, were, with infinite difficulty” collected in one secure spot. And “the King took his position for the night” contented with what he had achieved.

Major Harris’ description of life at Sahle Sellasie’s night camp reveals a telling contrast between the defeat and destruction of the Oromo on one hand, and victory and joy of their adversaries on the other. While reading what he narrates about the night, one almost ‘hears’ the sounds made by the displaced and agitated livestock, the screams of female captives calling for help or pleading that their captors leave them alone, the crying children who saw their parents killed during the day and now being dragged into slavery by their captors, the burning of their villages and homes surrounding Sahle Sellasie’s camping site, and the boastful fukara and qararto (war songs) of his Amhara forces. Harris wrote that,

Loud whoops and yells, arising from every quarter of the wide valley, mingled with the incessant lowing kine [cattle], the bleating of sheep, the thrill neighing of the war-steed, and the occasional wailing of some captive maid, subjected to the brutality of her unfeeling possessor. Groups of grim warriors, their hands embroiled in the innocent blood of infancy, and their stern features lighted by the fitful flame, chuckling over the barbarous spoils they had won, vaunted their inhuman exploits, as they feasted greedily … Spears and bucklers gleamed brightly around hundreds of bale-fires, composed of rafters stripped from the surrounding houses; and the whole distant landscape, red from the lurid glare reflected by scores of crackling [burning] hamlets (emphasis mine).

One may add that this happened, not only in Finfinnee or was committed only by Sahle Sellasie, but in numerous Oromo districts for many years after him leading to the genocide that killed half of the Oromo population at the end of the nineteenth century. Harris noted that Sahle Sellasie had carried out about 84 raids against his Oromo neighbours in every direction between 1813 and 1843.

Sahle Sellasie returned to Finfinnee and Eekkaa for the second time in 1843 because those who survived the first onslaught refused to submit or pay tributes to him. Harris wrote “The survivors of Ekka and Finfinni tribes, believing the fatal storm to be expended, had already returned with the residue of their flocks and herds, and were actively engaged in restoring their dilapidated habitations, when the Amhara hordes again burst over their valley, slew six hundred souls, and captured all the remaining cattle.” This time the predators looted 6000 head of cattle (Ege, 1996). Sahle Sellasie was not able to bring Finfinnee under his control. He died in 1847 and was succeeded by his son Haile Melekot, who continued with the predatory raids against the Oromo until his death in 1855.

II.  Amhara Conquest and Occupation in the mid-1880s and Oromo Eviction

In 1865, Menelik, the son of Haile Melekot, became the ruler of Shawa. Sahle Sellasie could repeatedly raid but not able to occupy Finfinnee. Though equipped with firearms, his forces were not capable to defend themselves against the famous Oromo cavalry on a permanent basis. But, Menelik was able to do what Sahle Sellasie failed to accomplish. He was, not only able to raid the Oromo territories, but also occupy them permanently. He was assisted by modern weapons he could amass in exchange for booties he collected in his numerous raids against the Oromo and other peoples in the southern regions what is today Ethiopia, and the revenues he collected from the slave trade with Arabia and the Ottoman Empire. The possession of modern weapons in large quantities enabled him, not only to defeat the Oromo, but outbid his northern rivals for the Abyssinian throne as well as to compete, as the only Africa ruler, with European states in the colonial scramble for Africa. Unlike his European counterparts, who ruled their colonies from their metropolises in Europe, Menelik moved his capital to Finfinnee in the middle of his newly built empire.

As he started expansion into Oromo territory, Menelik first built his capital in 1881 on the Entotto ranges overlooking the magnificent plains and valleys of Finfinnee. Entotto was chosen as a strategic site defensible against the surrounding Oromo who were not yet subjugated. By mid 1880s, the subjugation of the Oromo in this area was completed, and Menelik was able to descend from Entotto, build his capital over the ruins of villages and farms in Finfinnee in 1887, and renamed it Addis Ababa. Tens of thousands of Oromos were evicted as Menelik granted their land to the nobility and their soldiers, and as the city expanded over the years. Many of the uprooted moved to the south within their country and some migrated to west. The loss of Finfinnee was documented about 120 years ago in an Oromo poem titled: “No More Standing on Entotto” by an anonymous author just after occupation.

English translation

No more standing on Intottoo,
to look on meadows blow,
No more taking cattle to Finfinnee,
to water at the mineral springs.
No more gathering on Daalattii,
where the Gullallee assembly used to meet
No more going beyond Gafarsaa,
to chop firewood.
No more pasturing calves,
on the meadows of Hurufa Bombi.
The year the enemy came
our cattle were consumed.
Since Mashasha came,
freedom has vanished.

Afaan Oromoo

Inxooxoo dhabatanii
Caffee gad ilaalun haafe,
Finfinnee loon geessani,
hora obaasuun hafe
Tullu Daalatti irratt
Yaa’iin Gullallee hafee
Gafarsatti dabrani
qoraan cabsuun hin hafee
Hurufa Bombi irratti,
jabbilee yaasuun hafee
Bara jarri dhufani,
Loon keenyaas ni dhumani
Edda Mashashan dhufee
Birmaadummaan hinhafee.

(Source: Wolde Yohannes Warqineh and Gammachu Malkaa: Oromiyaa: Yetedebeqew yegif Tarik,1994)

It was Dajazmach Mashasha Seyfu, one of the grandsons of Sahle Sellassie who, on behalf of his cousin Menelik II, occupied the Finfinnee and the adjacent Oromo territory in the late 1870s. The destruction inflicted by Mashasha was more severe than that which was caused by his grandfather Negus Sahle Sellasie in 1843 described above.  The Amhara occupation of Finfinnee and Oromo uprooting became permanent. The author of the poem laments the occupation of his homeland and suppression of its social institution, political and military institution—Gadaa, and the destruction of economic production and the natural environment of Finfinnee by the occupiers. The conquerors also went on to change the identity of the place: they renamed it Addis Ababa, and built a city using Oromo sweat and blood. And from Addis Ababa, the rest of Oromoland and the Ethiopian Empire was colonised, controlled, oppressed and exploited for more than 100 years.

1991: TPLF Captures Finfinnee and Oromo eviction continues

In 1991 Tigrinya speaking elites from Maqale and Adwa, not only took the turn to rule the Ethiopian empire, but also to decide whether the Oromo should live or not live in Finfinnee. During the last twenty years, the Tigrayan regime has uprooted thousands of Oromo politicians, intellectuals and businessmen from Finfinnee, and has succeeded in silencing many critical Oromo voices in the city and the country. The regime has imprisoned and/or sent into exile Oromo journalists, writers and artists; it has closed down all Oromo newspapers, journals and cultural clubs. Members of political organisations representing Oromo interests have been jailed, tortured and killed or exiled. Today, there are hundreds of thousands of Oromos scattered all over the world, and the number of Oromo refugees from Finfinnee has increased steadily and significantly during the last two decades. Harassed and terrorized by the regime, many Oromo businessmen have closed down their businesses and gone into exile.

I wrote in 2003 that the TPLF regime is now planning to make Finfinnee and the surrounding towns and villages into “Greater Addis Abba,” and displacing Oromo-speaking inhabitants. The Oromo will be relegated to the backyard and marginalized further as “Greater Addis Ababa” will be a zone that is free from the Oromo language. I argued that, if not stopped now, one should expect that the plan which Mr. Zenawi’s regime has for Finfinnee would have far-reaching consequences on the Oromo. Their uprooting will not be limited to Finfinnee area alone. Addis Ababa is going to expand towards the towns of Bishfotu in the East, Sabbata and beyond in Southwest, Sandafa and Shano in Northeast and Holota and even toward Ambo in the West. The scenario is that the regime will work actively to discourage Oromo presence in any culturally or institutionally organised manner in the region. Addis Ababa will get rid of everything that is reminiscent of  its historical Oromo identity, and eventually the Meles Zenawi regime or his successors will call the region “Greater Addis Ababa” and declare it a federal, Amharic-speaking autonomous region or “zone.” Consequently, I argued that the TPLF regime, with the Finfinnee experiment as a starting point, wants to create “Oromo-free” zones or settlements cutting the Oromo territory into several pieces in the same way Israeli settlements perforate the occupied Palestinian territories. Much of what I had feared a decade ago has taken place already. The plan has not changed with the death of Mr. Zenawi, who had master-minded it. The present Prime Minister has solemnly declared to fulfill the goals set up by his predecessor and mentor. Oromo uprooting from Finfinnee and other parts of Oromia will not stop. The number of Oromos seeking asylum will inevitably increase with the on-going crackdown on Oromo students and continued exacerbation of the violations of human rights in general.

All the above is a common knowledge, not only in Finfinnee/Addis Ababa, but internationally as well. It suffices to look at the many reports filed by international human rights organisations, such as Amnesty International, Africa Watch, Human Rights Watch, etc. to get a view of the human rights situation in Ethiopia during the last ten years. Needless to add, this gross violation of human and people’s rights should not be allowed to continue.

Who will stop it?

The primary responsibility of stopping the Oromo eviction is that of the Oromo people themselves. We should make it absolutely clear to those who will uproot us from our homeland that they are engaged in a dangerous enterprise that can backfire. Non-Oromos should know that we have nothing against those who respect our human rights and will live with us in peace, but will not accept uprooting and humiliation anymore. This cannot be done by paper work or appeals to the international community alone. That is necessary, but not enough. We know from experience the futility of appealing to others to have Oromo rights respected. That means, we should engage in a real struggle to gain respect and security in our own country. Here, struggle means concrete action on the spot. It means organised peaceful demonstration and protest in Finfinnee itself. Indeed, solidarity demonstrations can be staged in cities around the world by Oromos in the diaspora, but it would be futile to make appeals abroad until and unless such a demonstration takes place first in Finfinnee. The population of Finfinnee should not be terrorised by the TPLF regime into passive acquiescence, but continue to protest. They should know that, once they are displaced from their territory, appeals to the international community are not going to help them to regain their rights. This is what the histories of the Palestinian refugees, and other uprooted and displaced populations teach us. Furthermore, there are several million Oromos physically not far away from Finfinnee who could be mobilised for peaceful demonstrations. Inhabitants of other Oromo cities and towns can stage demonstrations in solidarity with those in Finfinnee. Finfinnee is their city; it is the capital city of Oromia.

I argued in 2003 that the problem of terrorism and eviction should concern, not only the Oromo, but also the other peoples of Ethiopia. In particular, the oppressed peoples of the south should be approached for their co-operation. The Sidama, Somali, Anuak, Gurage, Walaita, Kambata, Hadiya, etc. should understand that it will be their turn tomorrow to be forcibly uprooted and displaced. They should know that the Finfinnee experiment will be repeated also in the cities and towns of any of the southern peoples. The same is true about the current problem of the Oromo students of Finfinnee University. It must not be their problem alone. Oromo students from all over Oromia around the world must be concerned in the first place. The Oromo people must cooperate with their sons and daughters. Students from other nationalities in Finfinnee and other cities Ethiopia must show their solidarity.

However, whatever the cost may be, the Oromo should not accept the humiliation perpetrated against them in Finfinnee and elsewhere in their homeland. As Fredrick Douglass had stated, “The limits of tyrants are prescribed by the endurance of those whom they oppress.” It is time that the Oromo learn from the historic anti-apartheid struggle of the people of South Africa, the Intifada of the Palestinian children, and the Civil Rights Movement of the African-Americans, who used both peaceful and non-peaceful means to have their rights and humanity respected. To quote Fredrick Douglass once again, the Oromo should not hesitate to use both ‘words and blows’ to get rid of the injustice being committed against them.

In 2003 the Macca-Tuulama Association demanded that the decision made by the Ethiopian Government to remove Oromo institutions from Addis Ababa/Finfinnee be revoked immediately and Oromo rights to their historical homeland respected. As indicated above, the regime did not listen to the Oromo. However, when the regime was forced by the popular mood that led to its loss mandate over the city, it dropped the decision to move Oromo institutions from the capital. However, the revocation, I think, is not enough. The demands should include the following points in order to enhance Oromo rights and special interests in the city as granted by the Ethiopian Constitution and ratified by the present regime. As I have indicated in 2003, this is the least the Oromo can peacefully ask from a regime that has conquered and is occupying their city.

1. Change the name of the area and city back to its original name Finfinnee. An Oromo name is as good as any other name. Addis Ababa is an imposed colonial name as Salisbury was before it was renamed Harare.

2. Today Finfinnee’s city squares are decorated mainly by statues of Abyssinian leaders who had committed atrocious crimes against the Oromo people and against humanity. Acknowledge the crimes they committed and build parks and monuments in commemoration of the thousands of men, women and children who were massacred or taken prisoners and enslaved by Sahle Sellasie and Menelik.

3. It is a violation of human rights to prevent more than half a million Oromos living in the city from using their language as they wish. It was with Addis Ababa as a centre that the Ethiopian rulers suppressed and tried to destroy Oromo heritage. Build Oromo institutions and revive the Oromo language and culture in Finfinnee. Give Finfinnee’s main streets and avenues names that commemorate Oromo historical personalities and events.

4. The last line in the poem cited above reads: “Edda Mashashan dhufee (Since Mashasha came),Birmaadummaan hinhafee (freedom has vanished)”.  It time to stop the violation of Oromo human rights that started more than a century ago and rebuild the damages it has caused starting in Finfinnee.

Mekuria Bulcha, PhD and Professor of Sociology, is an author of widely read books and articles. His new book, Contours of the Emergent and Ancient Oromo Nation, is published by CASAS (Centre for Advanced Studies of African Society), Cape Town, South Africa, in 2011. He was also the founder and publisher of The Oromo Commentary (1990-1999). He is an active member of the OLF and has served in the different branches of the national movement since the 1970s.